James Paul Gee
. Barton, D. (1999). Situated literacies: reading and writing in context. London: Routledge, pp. 180-196
Publication year: 1999

Over the last several decades, in and across a wide variety of disciplines, there has been a massive \”social turn\” away from a focus on individual behavior (e.g., the behaviorism of the first half of the 20th century) and individual minds (e.g., the cognitivism of the middle part of the century) toward a focus on social and cultural interaction. The New Literacy Studies (NLS) was one movement among a great many others that took part in this “social turn” (see Barton 1994; Gee 1996; and Street 1995 for programmatic statements; see Heath 1983 and Street 1984 for seminal “early” examples of the NLS).