James Paul Gee
Gee, J. P. (2015). The vexed nature of language learning and teaching. In Creativity in Language Teaching: Perspectives from Research and Practice (pp. 63-76). Taylor and Francis Inc.. DOI: 10.4324/9781315730936
Publication year: 2015

Language learning is a vexed topic. There really is no unitary phenomenon covered by the term “language learning.” Learning a first native language as a monolingual is not the same as learning two or more native languages (Grosjean, 1984, 2010). Learning to deal with a great many languages around you (as in parts of Africa) is not the same as learning to deal with one or two (Finnegan, 1988). People learn “foreign” languages in many different ways for many different purposes. Learning a language in a classroom is different than learning one in situ. Learning a vernacular variety of a language is not the same as learning a specialized register like the language of physics (Gee, 2004).